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Esse artista desenha belas e perturbadoras ilustrações sobre distúrbios mentais

Todo mês de outubro, artistas de todo o mundo assumem o desafio do InkTober fazendo um desenho de tinta por dia durante todo o mês. Em outubro de 2016, Shawn Coss, artista de Ohio, EUA, decidiu fazer algo diferente. Ele se concentrou exclusivamente em personificar doenças e distúrbios mentais .

Shawn Coss consegue capturar o tumulto daqueles que sofrem com esses distúrbios maravilhosamente. É difícil para aqueles que realmente não experimentaram sofrimento psicológico entender o que alguém que tem uma doença mental está passando, e é por isso que essas imagens são tão potentes.

Depois de experimentar essas ilustrações, esperamos que você veja esses distúrbios com novos olhos.

Separamos apenas alguns dos trabalhos de Coss, mas você pode conferir todo o seu portfólio no Instagram.

1. Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline

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Borderline Personality Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 1 . . www.amnclothing.com . . People with borderline personality disorder may experience mood swings and display uncertainty about how they see themselves and their role in the world. As a result, their interests and values can change quickly. . . People with borderline personality disorder also tend to view things in extremes, such as all good or all bad. Their opinions of other people can also change quickly. An individual who is seen as a friend one day may be considered an enemy or traitor the next. These shifting feelings can lead to intense and unstable relationships. . . Not everyone with borderline personality disorder experiencesevery symptom. Some individuals experience only a few symptoms, while others have many. Symptoms can be triggered by seemingly ordinary events. For example, people with borderline personality disorder may become angry and distressed over minor separations from people to whom they feel close, such as traveling on business trips. The severity and frequency of symptoms and how long they last will vary depending on the individual and their illness. . . #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018 #bpd #borderlinepersonalitydisorder #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary

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Pessoas com transtorno de personalidade borderline podem experimentar mudanças de humor e mostrar incerteza sobre como elas se vêem e seu papel no mundo. Como resultado, seus interesses e valores podem mudar rapidamente.

Essas pessoas tendem a ver as coisas em extremos, como tudo de bom ou de todo ruim. Suas opiniões de outras pessoas também podem mudar rapidamente. Um indivíduo que é visto como um amigo um dia pode ser considerado um inimigo ou traidor no dia seguinte. Essas mudanças podem levar a relacionamentos intensos e instáveis.

2. Transtorno de ansiedade

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Anxiety Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 2 . . www.amnclothing.com – all previous inktober series now available on hoodies with portions of proceeds being donated to the Treatment Advocacy Center . . . People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) display excessive anxiety or worry, most days for at least 6 months, about a number of things such as personal health, work, social interactions, and everyday routine life circumstances. The fear and anxiety can cause significant problems in areas of their life, such as social interactions, school, and work. . . . Generalized anxiety disorder symptoms include: Feeling like one is suffocating Feeling restless, wound-up, or on-edge Being easily fatigued, Having difficulty concentrating; mind going blank ,Being irritable, Having muscle tension, Difficulty controlling feelings of worry, Having sleep problems, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, restlessness, or unsatisfying sleep #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018 #bpd #anxietydisorder #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary

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As pessoas com transtorno de ansiedade demonstram ansiedade ou preocupação excessivas sobre várias coisas, como saúde pessoal, trabalho, interações sociais e circunstâncias cotidianas da vida. O medo e a ansiedade podem causar problemas significativos em áreas da vida, como interações sociais, escola e trabalho.

Os sintomas generalizados do transtorno de ansiedade incluem sentir-se como se estivesse sufocando, inquietação e sensação de falha cardíaca.

As pessoas com essa condição ficam facilmente fatigadas, tendo dificuldade de concentração, tensas, irritadas, insônia, entre outras coisas.

3. TOC (Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo)

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 3 . . . www.amnclothing.com – all previous inktober series now available on hoodies with portions of proceeds beind donated to the Treatment Advocay Center . . . Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. . . People with OCD may have symptoms of obsessions, compulsions, or both. These symptoms can interfere with all aspects of life, such as work, school, and personal relationships. . . Obsessions are repeated thoughts, urges, or mental images that cause anxiety. Common symptoms include:Fear of germs or contaminationUnwanted forbidden or taboo thoughts involving sex, religion, and harmAggressive thoughts towards others or self . . Having things symmetrical or in a perfect orderCompulsions are repetitive behaviors that a person with OCD feels the urge to do in response to an obsessive thought. Common compulsions include:Excessive cleaning and/or handwashing Ordering and arranging things in a particular, precise way Repeatedly checking on things, such as repeatedly checking to see if the door is locked or that the oven is off Compulsive counting . . Not all rituals or habits are compulsions. Everyone double checks things sometimes. But a person with OCD generally:Can't control his or her thoughts or behaviors, even when those thoughts or behaviors are recognized as excessive Spends at least 1 hour a day on these thoughts or behaviors Doesn’t get pleasure when performing the behaviors or rituals, but may feel brief relief from the anxiety the thoughts cause Experiences significant problems in their daily life due to these thoughts or behaviors #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018 #bpd #ocd #obsessivecompulsivedisorder #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary #

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O Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo (TOC) é um distúrbio comum, crônico e de longa duração, no qual a pessoa tem pensamentos (obsessões) e comportamentos (compulsões) incontroláveis e recorrentes que sente necessidade de repetir indefinidamente.

Pessoas com TOC podem apresentar sintomas de obsessões, compulsões ou ambos. Esses sintomas podem interferir em todos os aspectos da vida, como trabalho, escola e relacionamentos pessoais.

Obsessões são pensamentos repetidos, impulsos ou imagens mentais que causam ansiedade. Os sintomas comuns incluem medo de germes ou contaminação, palavrões ou palavras que envolvem sexo, religião, entre outros.

Manter as coisas simétricas ou em perfeita ordem são comportamentos repetitivos que uma pessoa com TOC pode fazer  em resposta a um pensamento obsessivo. As compulsões comuns incluem: Limpeza excessiva e / ou lavagem das mãos, solicitar e organizar as coisas de uma maneira precisa e específica, verificar repetidamente as coisas, como se a porta está trancada ou se o forno está desligado, entre outras coisas.

4. Transtorno bipolar

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BiPolar Disorder I – Inktober Illness II – Day 4 . . www.amnclothing.com – all previous inktober series now available on hoodies with portions of proceeds beind donated to the Treatment Advocay Center . . Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes. . . Bipolar I Disorder— defined by manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible. . . Sometimes a mood episode includes symptoms of both manic and depressive symptoms. This is called an episode with mixed features. People experiencing an episode with mixed features may feel very sad, empty, or hopeless, while at the same time feeling extremely energized. . . Bipolar disorder can be present even when mood swings are less extreme. For example, some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomania, a less severe form of mania. During a hypomanic episode, an individual may feel very good, be highly productive, and function well. The person may not feel that anything is wrong, but family and friends may recognize the mood swings and/or changes in activity levels as possible bipolar disorder. Without proper treatment, people with hypomania may develop severe mania or depression. #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018 #bpd #ocd #bipolar # #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary #darkart #art #dark #artist #horror #gothic

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O transtorno bipolar é um distúrbio cerebral que causa alterações incomuns no humor, energia, níveis de atividade e capacidade de realizar tarefas cotidianas.

Existem quatro tipos básicos de transtorno bipolar; todos eles envolvem mudanças claras nos níveis de humor, energia e atividade. Esses estados de humor variam de períodos extremamente “exaltados” e energizados (conhecidos como episódios maníacos) a períodos muito tristes ou sem esperança (conhecidos como episódios depressivos). Períodos maníacos menos graves são conhecidos como episódios hipomaníacos.

5. Depressão

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Generalized Depression – Inktober Illness II – Day 5 . . www.amnclothing.com – all previous inktober series now available on hoodies with portions of proceeds beind donated to the Treatment Advocay Center . . Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn't worth living. . . Although depression may occur only once during your life, people typically have multiple episodes. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include: Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food and weight gain Anxiety, agitation or restlessness Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or self-blame Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others. Some people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018 #bpd #ocd #bipolar # #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary #darkart #art #dark #artist #horror #gothic #blackandwhite #illustration #goth #drawing #horror

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A depressão é um transtorno de humor que causa um sentimento persistente de tristeza e perda de interesse. Também chamado de transtorno depressivo maior ou depressão clínica, afeta como você se sente, pensa e se comporta e pode levar a uma variedade de problemas emocionais e físicos. Você pode ter dificuldade em fazer as atividades normais do dia-a-dia, e às vezes pode sentir que a vida não vale a pena ser vivida.

Embora a depressão possa ocorrer apenas uma vez durante a sua vida, as pessoas geralmente têm vários episódios. Durante esses episódios, os sintomas ocorrem a maior parte do dia, quase todos os dias e podem incluir:

  • Sentimentos de tristeza, lacrimejamento, vazio ou desesperança;
  • Explosões de raiva, irritabilidade ou frustração, mesmo em assuntos pequenos;
  • Perda de interesse ou prazer na maioria das atividades normais como sexo, hobbies ou esportes;
  • Distúrbios do sono, incluindo insônia ou dormir demais;
  • Cansaço e falta de energia;
  • Redução do apetite e perda de peso ou aumento do desejo por comida e ganho de peso;
  • Ansiedade, agitação ou inquietação;
  • Pensamentos, fala ou movimentos do corpo lentos;
  • Sentimentos de inutilidade ou culpa, fixando-se em falhas passadas ou auto-culpa;
  • Problemas para pensar, concentrar-se, tomar decisões e lembrar de coisas;
  • Pensamentos frequentes ou recorrentes de morte, pensamentos suicidas, tentativas de suicídio ou suicídio
  • Problemas físicos inexplicáveis, como dor nas costas ou dores de cabeça

Para muitas pessoas com depressão, os sintomas geralmente são graves o suficiente para causar problemas perceptíveis nas atividades do dia a dia, como trabalho, escola, atividades sociais ou relacionamentos com outras pessoas. Algumas pessoas podem se sentir geralmente infelizes sem realmente saber o porquê.

6. Transtorno de Despersonalização

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Depersonalization Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 6 www.amnclothing.com – all previous inktober series now available on hoodies with portions of proceeds beind donated to the Treatment Advocay Center Depersonalization disorder is a psychiatric disorder affecting emotions and behavior. It is characterized by an alteration in how an affected individual perceives or experiences his or her unique sense of self. The usual sense of one's own reality is temporarily lost or changed. A feeling of detachment from, or being an outside observer of, one's mental processes or body occurs such as the sensation of being in a dream. Depersonalization disorder is characterized by persistent or recurring episodes of the loss of the sense of self (depersonalization). The symptoms of depersonalization disorder are sufficient enough to cause marked distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of life. The usual sense of one’s self or reality is temporarily changed or lost. A feeling of detachment from, or being an outside observer of, one’s mental processes or body occurs. The affected individual may feel as if he/she is in a dream. Affected individuals may experience various types of lack of sensory stimulation (sensory anesthesia) and a sensation of not being in complete control of one’s actions, including speech. This condition may not occur during the course of another mental disorder or be the effects of a substance or general medical condition. #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018  #depersonalization #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary #darkart #art #dark #artist

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O transtorno de despersonalização é um transtorno psiquiátrico que afeta as emoções e o comportamento. É caracterizada por uma alteração em como um indivíduo afetado percebe ou experimenta seu senso único de si mesmo. O senso comum da própria realidade é temporariamente perdido ou mudado.

O transtorno de despersonalização é caracterizado por episódios persistentes ou recorrentes da perda do senso de si mesmo (despersonalização). Os sintomas do transtorno de despersonalização são suficientes para causar sofrimento acentuado ou prejuízo nas áreas sociais, ocupacionais ou outras áreas importantes da vida. O senso comum da realidade é temporariamente mudado ou perdido. Um sentimento de distanciamento ou de ser um observador externo dos processos mentais ou corporais ocorre. O indivíduo afetado pode sentir como se estivesse em um sonho, e podem experimentar vários tipos de falta de estimulação sensorial, além de uma sensação de não estar no controle completo das ações, incluindo sua fala.

7. Transtorno da Personalidade Dependente

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Dependent Personality Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 7 . . www.amnclothing.com – all previous inktober series now available on hoodies with portions of proceeds being donated to the Treatment Advocacy Center . . People with DPD become emotionally overdependent on other people and spend great effort trying to please others. People with DPD tend to display needy, passive, and clinging behavior, and have a fear of separation. Other common characteristics of this personality disorder include . . Inability to make decisions, even everyday decisions like what to wear, without the advice and reassurance of others. . Avoidance of adult responsibilities by acting passive and helpless; dependence on a spouse or friend to make decisions like where to work and live. . . Intense fear of abandonment and a sense of devastation or helplessness when relationships end; a person with DPD often moves right into another relationship when one ends. . . Oversensitivity to criticism Pessimism and lack of self-confidence, including a belief that they are unable to care for themselves . . Avoidance of disagreeing with others for fear of losing support or approval . . Inability to start projects or tasks because of a lack of self-confidence . . Difficulty being alone . . Willingness to tolerate mistreatment and abuse from others . . Placing the needs of their caregivers above their own #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018  #depersonalization #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary #darkart #art #dark #artist #horror #gothic

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As pessoas com Transtorno da Personalidade Dependente tornam-se excessivamente dependentes de outras pessoas e dedicam grande esforço tentando agradar os outros. As pessoas com essa condição tendem a demonstrar comportamento carente, passivo e apegado, e temem a separação. Outras características comuns deste transtorno de personalidade incluem:

  • Incapacidade de tomar decisões, até mesmo decisões do dia a dia, como o que vestir, sem o conselho dos outros.
  • Evitar responsabilidades adultas agindo de forma passiva e desamparada;
  • Dependência de um cônjuge ou amigo para tomar decisões como onde trabalhar e morar.
  • Intenso medo do abandono e uma sensação de devastação ou desamparo quando os relacionamentos terminam
  • Oversensibilidade à crítica
  • Pessimismo e falta de autoconfiança, incluindo a crença de que eles são incapazes de cuidar de si mesmos

8. Esquizofrenia

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Schizophrenia Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 9 . . Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. Although schizophrenia is not as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling. . . Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. In rare cases, children have schizophrenia too.The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three categories: positive, negative, and cognitive. . . Positive symptoms: “Positive” symptoms are psychotic behaviors not generally seen in healthy people. People with positive symptoms may “lose touch” with some aspects of reality. Symptoms include: Hallucinations, Delusions ,Thought disorders (unusual or dysfunctional ways of thinking), Movement disorders (agitated body movements) . . Negative symptoms: “Negative” symptoms are associated with disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors. Symptoms include:“Flat affect” (reduced expression of emotions via facial expression or voice tone), Reduced feelings of pleasure in everyday life, Difficulty beginning and sustaining activities, Reduced speaking . . Cognitive symptoms: For some patients, the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are subtle, but for others, they are more severe and patients may notice changes in their memory or other aspects of thinking. Symptoms include:Poor “executive functioning” (the ability to understand information and use it to make decisions), Trouble focusing or paying attention, Problems with “working memory” (the ability to use information immediately after learning it) #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018  #schizophrenia #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary

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A esquizofrenia é um transtorno mental crônico e grave que afeta a maneira como a pessoa pensa, sente e se comporta. Pessoas com esquizofrenia podem parecer que perderam contato com a realidade. Embora a esquizofrenia não seja tão comum quanto outros transtornos mentais, os sintomas, que muitas vezes incluem alucinações graves, podem ser muito incapacitantes e perigosos.

9. Transtorno dissociativo de identidade

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Dissociative Identity Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 11 . . Dissociative disorders are characterized by an involuntary escape from reality characterized by a disconnection between thoughts, identity, consciousness and memory. People from all age groups and racial, ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds can experience a dissociative disorder. . . Its estimated that 2% of people experience dissociative disorders, with women being more likely than men to be diagnosed. Almost half of adults in the United States experience at least one depersonalization/derealization episode in their lives, with only 2% meeting the full criteria for chronic episodes. . . The symptoms of a dissociative disorder usually first develop as a response to a traumatic event, such as abuse or military combat, to keep those memories under control. Stressful situations can worsen symptoms and cause problems with functioning in everyday activities. However, the symptoms a person experiences will depend on the type of dissociative disorder that a person has. . . . #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018 #DID #split #dissociative #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary

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Os distúrbios dissociativos caracterizam-se por uma fuga involuntária da realidade caracterizada por uma desconexão entre pensamentos, identidade, consciência e memória. Pessoas de todas as faixas etárias e origens raciais, étnicas e socioeconômicas podem experimentar um distúrbio dissociativo.

Os sintomas de um distúrbio dissociativo geralmente se desenvolvem primeiro como resposta a um evento traumático, como abuso ou combate militar, para manter essas memórias sob controle. Situações estressantes podem piorar os sintomas e causar problemas de funcionamento nas atividades cotidianas.

10. Transtorno De Pânico

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Panic Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 12 . . www.amnclothing.com . . “One day, without any warning or reason, a feeling of terrible anxiety came crashing down on me. I felt like I couldn’t get enough air, no matter how hard I breathed. My heart was pounding out of my chest, and I thought I might die. I was sweating and felt dizzy. I felt like I had no control over these feelings and like I was drowning and couldn’t think straight. “After what seemed like an eternity, my breathing slowed and I eventually let go of the fear and my racing thoughts, but I was totally drained and exhausted. These attacks started to occur every couple of weeks, and I thought I was losing my mind. My friend saw how I was struggling and told me to call my doctor for help.” . . People with panic disorder have sudden and repeated attacks of fear that last for several minutes or longer. These are called panic attacks. Panic attacks are characterized by a fear of disaster or of losing control even when there is no real danger. A person may also have a strong physical reaction during a panic attack. It may feel like having a heart attack. Panic attacks can occur at any time, and many people with panic disorder worry about and dread the possibility of having another attack. #shawncoss #anymeansnecessary #socialanxiety #inktober2018 #inktoberillness2 #itsoknottobeok #panicattack

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Pessoas com transtorno do pânico têm ataques repentinos e repetidos de medo que duram vários minutos ou mais. Estes são chamados de ataques de pânico. Ataques de pânico são caracterizados por um medo de desastre ou de perder o controle, mesmo quando não há perigo real. Uma pessoa também pode ter uma forte reação física durante um ataque de pânico. Pode parecer um ataque cardíaco. Ataques de pânico podem ocorrer a qualquer momento, e muitas pessoas com transtorno do pânico se preocupam e temem a possibilidade de ter outro ataque.

11. Delirium

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Delirium Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 15 . . www.amnclothing.com . . Delirium is a condition of severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function. Delirium in itself is not a disease, but rather a cluster of symptoms that may result from a disease or other clinical process. Shorter in duration than dementia, it is often the result of treatable physical or mental illness. Underlying causes should be investigated. Delirium can be a side effect of some medications. Delirium is also referred to as "acute confusional state" or "acute brain syndrome." Delirium involves a rapid alternation between mental states (for example, from lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy). Symptoms include: Disrupted or wandering attention Inability to think or behave with purpose Disorganized thinking Speech that doesn't make sense (incoherence) Inability to stop speech patterns or behaviors Confusion or disorientation about time or place Changes in feeling (sensation) and perception Changes in level of consciousness or awareness Changes in sleep patterns, drowsiness Changes in alertness (significantly more alert in morning, less alert at night) Decrease in short-term memory and recall Unable to remember events since the delirium began (anterograde amnesia) #shawncoss #inktoberillness2 #inktober2018  #selfharm #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary #darkart #delirium

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O delirium é uma condição de grande confusão e rápidas mudanças na função cerebral. O delirium em si não é uma doença, mas sim um conjunto de sintomas que podem resultar de uma doença ou outro processo clínico. Mais curta do que a demência, é muitas vezes o resultado de doenças físicas ou mentais tratáveis.

O delirium pode ser um efeito colateral de alguns medicamentos, e envolve uma rápida alternância entre estados mentais.

12. Transtorno de pica

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Pica Disorder – Inktober Illness II – Day 14 www.patreon.com/shawncoss Pica is a psychological disorder characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as ice (pagophagia); hair (trichophagia); paper (xylophagia);[1] drywall or paint; metal (metallophagia); stones (lithophagia) or soil (geophagia); glass (hyalophagia); feces (coprophagia); and chalk.[2] According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) criteria, for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate, not part of culturally sanctioned practice and sufficiently severe to warrant clinical attention. It can lead to intoxication in children, which can result in an impairment of both physical and mental development.[3] In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies and parasitosis.[3] Pica has been linked to other mental and emotional disorders. Stressors such as emotional trauma, maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica as a form of comfort. #shawncoss #mentalillness #horrorart #endthestigma #blackandwhiteart #mentalhealth #pica #itsoknottobeok #creepyart #lineart #illustration #illness #jakeparker #anymeansnecessary

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A pica é um distúrbio psicológico caracterizado por um apetite por substâncias que são em grande parte não nutritivas, como gelo (pagofagia); cabelo (tricofagia); madeira (xilofagia); metal (metalofagia); pedras (litofagia), terra (geofagia); vidro (hialofagia); fezes (coprofagia), entre outros.

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